Irish Whiskey Pt. 10: Thin Line Between Patriot and Pirate // Copeland Distillery
A navy strength gin based on a battle off the coast of Copeland Island in the North Channel inspires an episode about a famous, but not well known patriot/pirate.
Listen to the Episode
History is fascinating. It becomes even more interesting when you look at it through more than one lens. That is what I'll be doing this week - as I look at a complicated man whose first two potential victories in the North Channel were apparently snatched away by drink. His reputation on one side was as a pirate and the other as a patriot. We'll jump into that story.
And then I'll do a tasting of a gin named in his honor at Copeland Distillery. I hear what you're saying "Drew drinking gin?" Well, let's just say, this one has a nice whiskey twist.
BATTLE OF COPELAND ISLAND
There was tension in the air, as out of Belfast Lough, a makeshift British military ship moved alongside a smaller vessel, preparing to bring on board some reinforced leadership.
This was HMS Drake, a one-time merchant ship that had sailed as a civilian ship under the names Royal Oak and Resolution, until it was purchased by the British Royal Navy, and supplied with 20 cannon for the expressed purpose of protecting shipping lanes. Most of her time was spent doing routine patrols, and recently she had found herself docked at the quay in Carrickfergus, Ireland.
But today would be anything but routine. A strange incident had occurred just 3 nights before that had alerted the captain and crew to a potential attack.
A mystery ship had appeared in Belfast Lough just after midnight and to those that witnessed her arrival, it looked like she had every intention of attacking the Drake as her crew slumbered. But for some reason, it had thought better of it and removed itself to the Irish Sea.
But soon after, reports had come forth that this same mysterious sloop of war had raided the English town of Whitehurst, had sabotaged her shoreline guns and attempted to burn its hundreds of boats grounded at low tide. The plot had apparently failed after some of the pirates lingered too long in a public house during the night.
But then, the man the Drake was picking up, Royal Navy Lieutenant William Dobbs got the word this ship had not only wreaked havoc on Whitehurst, but that it had also traveled up the coast to Scotland and had attempted to capture the Earl of Selkirk, for the expressed purpose of holding him for ransom.
These pirates had to be stopped. And word was, that mystery ship was likely making its way back to finish off the Drake. The Drake’s long in the tooth Captain George Burdon thought Dobbs intelligence could be of some use as they stood up to this vagrant roaming the Irish Sea, he also added 60 more Irishman to aid his 100 sailors in boarding and disabling the pirate ship.
But the Drake was meant to be a merchant ship. It was slow and not constructed for speed or maneuverability. They would need every advantage they could get. Burdon sent a small reconnaissance boat ahead to see what they were up against. What the reconnaissance team found was a sloop of war that looked well undermanned and out gunned. But it was a ruse. The captain of the mystery vessel had hidden his men below deck and pulled the cannon back from view. The mystery ship hauled in the reconnaissance boat and took its sailors prisoner - after the deed was done, the ship's crew threw up a mighty cheer.
This mystery ship was the newly constructed American sloop of war, the USS Ranger, under the command of Scotsman turned American patriot John Paul Jones.
Born John Paul, the famed American patriot began his sailing career as a teenager, taking command of his first boat after his captain and the second in command died from yellow fever, while the ship was abroad. But if John Paul thought these exploits would help him rise up in the British Royal Navy, any dream of that would come to an abrupt halt after he was caught up in a skirmish that would end in his murder of a munitous sailor - a sailor who was well connected with the Admiral’s Court. With his fate uncertain, he soon resurfaced in Fredericksburg, Virginia, adopting the surname Jones.
After moving to Philadelphia, he would join the Continental Navy and was made an officer by Richard Henry Lee. There is no doubt his early work with the Federal navy was critical to its development, but he soon found himself at odds with Commodore Hopkins and was given a smaller ship and told to head to France. Jones, needing a crew, placed an ad for sailors in the New Hampshire Gazette. But his one regret in placing this ad was likely the overemphasis on the word fortune. Rather than bringing forth patriots, it brought forth a crew looking for plunder. And this thirst for reward would be fostered by the man Jones would take on as second in command, Lieutenant Thomas Simpson.
This mission, for Jones, was a litmus test. Had the British become overconfident in their naval superiority and overextended themselves in the waters off of North America? On April 10th, 1778, he took off from Brest, France and sailed toward British waters to find out.
It was during the early morning of April 21st that the Ranger sailed into Belfast Lough. There, the HMS Drake sat, ill-prepared for battle. The plan was to sneak up beside her, lock the two boats together and then jump aboard, subdue the ship, and to appease his reward hungry crew - trade the boat for reward and exchange of prisoners. But his crew was apparently not quite ready to fight and a seaman, whom Jones would claim was drunk, miscalculated the anchor drop and the ship missed her chance at a surprise attack.
And while the attack at Whitehurst was said to have also been fumbled because of drink, it was still enough of a shock to British citizens that the will to back the war against the insurrectionists in the colonies was deemed less and less palatable.
The kidnapping of the Earl of Selkirk was actually a return to John Paul’s Scottish home, and the promise of plunder was likely to appease his crew. But Jones was more interested in holding the Earl to exchange for American prisoners. Instead, they found out the Earl was away, and gains in plunder were minimized when an astute Lady Selkirk had her servants load coal into the bottom of the bags filled with the family’s silver.
But now, the Americans finally had a bonafide success with the capture of the reconnaissance boat at the opening of Belfast Lough. As the two adversaries spotted each other, the Ranger slowly made her way out into the North Channel, past Copeland Island, making sure not to get too far ahead of the Drake. By 6 pm, the two ships were clearly in sight of each other and for the first time, Lieutenant Dodd and Captain Burdon had visual confirmation, thanks to the colors raised about the Ranger, this was an American sloop of war.
And while the Drake had superior numbers of cannon, Jones had purposefully outfitted the Ranger with only 18, so as to keep his ship fast and nimble. Jones was also at a disadvantage in manpower. If the Drake were to capture the Ranger, the battle on the decks would greatly favor the British - a fact Jones likely learned from the captured reconnaissance team.
The Ranger turned and blasted the first volley at its foe. The Drake tried to return fire, but suddenly realized their cannon were not big enough to handle the weight of the powder and soon began tipping down from the weight. The two cannon in the rear of the ship became an instant liability as they slid across the deck every time they were fired, sending sailors scrambling. To make matters worse, there was no one to help solve the issues. The gunner had taken ill and was back at port and the gunner’s mate was on the Ranger - captured during the reconnaissance mission.
The Ranger fired over and over at the masts and rigging to disable the ship. The broadsides were causing chaos on the Drake, especially after Lt. Dobbs was struck by shrapnel and taken out of action. What shots made it to the Ranger did little damage, as her hull had been built for cannon-fire. The Drake was not so lucky. But the real damage seemed to come from muskets aboard the Ranger. As shot rang out from the decks, Captain Burdon was shot dead and with Dobbs out of commission, and the ship already poorly organized and managed, the end was inevitable. But the Ranger had done such an adequate job in shooting up the masts that the remaining command of the Drake had no colours to strike. Master John Walsh was left to jump up and down, and waive his hat in the air to call for a succession of hostilities. According to Jones records, the encounter lasted one hour and five minutes. A total of seven casualties, five of which were on the British side.
News got back to France quickly and Jones was hailed as a hero. For the British, it was time to lick their wounds and put together a more strategic battle plan for the defense of their homeland.
Jones next major encounter would be a ferocious battle that would him command a French built vessel the Bonhomme Richard. The ferocity of the battle would see his ship greatly damaged. The British had destroyed the masts and the American colors had been blown away from the ship. Seeing no colors on board, the HMS Serapis rode up along side Jones ship and the Captain yelled out, “have you struck your colors,” to which Jones made his famous retort, “colors? I have not yet begun to fight.” With everything they had, the Americans pounded the Serapis and forced it to strike its colors. And just in time, as they needed to board the British ship, as theirs sank beneath the waves. Jones’ legacy seemed all but cemented.
Why a story about John Paul Jones on a season devoted to Irish whiskey? It’ll make sense in a few minutes.
But first, let's find out what Alfred Barnard and his friends are up to, as they tour Tullamore Distillery circa 1886. And then join me for my next distillery stop on the Ard Peninsula in Northern Ireland, before we check back in with the John Paul Jones story, to see why he has been called The Father of the American Navy, and if he really was the right man for that title.
LEAVING the interesting town of Monasterevan, and the kind hospitality of Mr. Cassidy, we once more entered the train, this time for Tullamore, where, on arrival, we were just in time to see a National Demonstration. A procession, headed by a band of music, came in sight, followed by a rickety jaunting car, drawn by a venerable horse, rather groggy on his legs. The animal’s harness was decorated with sprigs of evergreen, while on the car, under an arbour of the same, sat a middle-aged lady, with a pleasant air of jollity on her face, who, we were informed, was an evicted martyr, just released from prison. She was followed by hundreds of nondescript vehicles, and a great crowd of sympathisers. Whilst the first band was playing “Wearin’ o’ the Green,” the second, which brought up the rear, gave us “God bless Ould Ireland,” and although we hailed from the land of the Saxon, “We were not afraid.” Indeed we enjoyed the fun immensely, and got mixed up with the crowd, feeling quite content for the time being to quaff Daly’s Whisky, so freely offered us, and were almost induced to join their ranks.
The weather was bright and sunny, so we took a drive to see the beautiful environs of the thriving town of Tullamore, and later on to visit the Distillery which we had come so far to see. It is situated in the heart of the town, on the banks of the river Clondagh, and with its buildings and grounds covers about ten acres. It was founded in the year 1829, by Mr. Michael Molloy, uncle to the present proprietor. Being planted in the midst of a fine home-grown corn of the finest quality. There is an unfailing supply of water from the celebrated Lough, which feeds the Grand Canal, brought from a great distance direct into the Distillery.
In olden times the town of Tullamore was called Kilbride, but it was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt by the Earl of Charleville, whose beautiful estate comes right up to the town. Afterwards it was called by its present name, and later on it was the terminus of the Grand Canal, before it was extended to Shannon Harbour, which caused it to increase rapidly in prosperity and population. The town is the chief market for all kinds of agricultural produce from a large extent of surrounding country, and contains, beside the Distillery, a tobacco manufactory and several other industries. It is an assize town, and its county court-house is a fine building, in the Grecian style; near to it is the county gaol, a castellated building. The demesne of Charleville is an estate of great natural beauty and richly wooded; the mansion has all the appearance of an English baronial castle. In the park, which is beautifully laid out, there are two pretty lakes, the largest of which is studded with islands. The river Clondagh, which runs through and under the Distillery, drives a huge water-wheel which supplies the motive power. It passes through the Policies of Charleville, where, running through a deep glen overhung with trees, it forms several fine cascades, adding to the natural beauty of the park.
The Distillery came into the hands of the present proprietor some thirty years ago, having been bequeathed to him by his uncle, and since that time Mr. Daly has not only improved and considerably extended the works, but has added new machinery and all the recently invented appliances used in distilling. The Whisky made is of the same class and make as manufactured by the noted Dublin houses, and it is not only sold and appreciated in the district, but is supplied in large quantities to England and the colonies.
The Distillery is superintended by Mr. Bernard Daly’s son, Mr. B. Mara, his nephew, and Mr. Charles Comyn, his son-in-law, but the general management is under the control of Mr. Daniel Williams.
The farmers deliver the corn to the Granaries, of which there are eight, capable of holding 60,000 barrels of grain. One of the stores has three lofts, each being 120 feet square, and capable of holding 10,000 barrels of corn. After being run through the self-acting cleaning machines, the grain is sent by elevators into four Kilns, each with open roof, and floored with patent wire flooring. These Kilns are capable of drying 1,000 barrels in each per week. The Dry Corn Lofts are attached to the Kilns.
The Mill Building contains eight pairs of stones, and the two Meal Lofts are over the two Mash Tuns, each capable of mashing 1,000 barrels weekly.
In the Back House there are ten Washbacks, each with a capacity of 16,000 gallons, and in the yard which commands the Stills, a Wash Charger, a fine metal vessel, holding 17,000 gallons.
Built on stone pillars, over the river, are to be seen, three Worm Tubs, very handsome vessels.
The Still House is a fine open building, containing four old Pot Stills (there are no others on the premises). Two wash stills and two spirit stills.
In the Running Room there is a fine Safe and Sampling Safe, a Spirit Receiver, holding 4,000 gallons, and Low Wines and Feints Receivers, capable of holding 30,000 gallons.
The Spirit Store is adjoining, and contains a Vat, holding 8,000 gallons, where the Whisky is reduced to 25 o.p., casked, branded, and delivered into the Warehouses, of which there are eleven large buildings, covering nearly five acres of ground, and containing at the time of our visit 900,000 gallons of Whisky, of various ages, principally in butts and hogsheads.
The Malting is a large department. There are four Barns, capable of malting 30,000 barrels, if necessary, with four Steeps and four large Malt Kilns, floored with perforated tiles.
In the Yard are two Chimney Stacks, that for the stilling being 108 feet high, and the other, for boiling, 60 feet high.
The Grains House and Spent Wash Tanks are conveniently arranged for the farmers to fetch away without going into the Distillery.
The following is a list of the industries pursued inside the establishment. A millwright and fitter’s shop, with a steam lathe and other appliances, carpenter’s shop, cooperage, &c., and it may be mentioned that a resident certificated engineer resides in a capital house on the premises, who is capable of making and fitting an engine if required.
The Whisky is Old Pot Still, and is sold all over Ireland, but principally in Dublin, whilst a large quantity goes to Liverpool, London, and Australia. We tasted some eight years old, which was so good.
On the right-hand side of the main entrance are the clerks’ and general offices, and on the left those for the seven Excise gentlemen.
We were informed that no malt is purchased for this Distillery, as it is all made on the premises. The works are within ten minutes’ walk from the railway station. One hundred persons are employed, and annual output is 270,000 gallons.
When I closed the door on my rental car, the sun was shining, I had a smile on my face realizing that this trip had really turned out to be all I had hoped it would be - but I had to put my serious face on, because I was supposed to be in Donaghadee at the Copeland distillery in about 30 minutes and I knew I was cutting it close.
I’ve always been one who really strives to be an on-time person. I noted that while I was visiting a couple of distilleries on this trip that people were surprised I was showing up on time - part of me wondered if that was because everyone else always seems to get stuck behind lorries, but I’d also heard someone say, because gas prices were so high, everyone was slowing down to save fuel. Well, whatever the case, I wasn’t in the position to get stuck behind too many supporters of the green party.
Then the worst happened. As soon as I got to the coast road, I saw just what I really didn’t need to see - road closed ahead! What? Where is it closed? Will it guide me through? The “diversion” signs, which I figured was the equivalent of “detour” were pointing in the wrong direction. I needed to go north.
I pulled up beside an older gentleman who was getting out of his car and said “excuse me, do you know how far up the road this is closed and can I get to Copeland Distillery from here.” Of course, he didn’t know what Copeland Distillery was and I couldn’t remember the name of the town it was in. I finally just said, the town on the north east corner of the peninsula, I figured that would get me heading in the right direction at least.
He pointed back the way I came and mentioned two village names which I stapled in my brain. I thanked him and went on my way. After driving a little while I found the first town name and made the appropriate turn. I had to listen to Google Maps incessantly complaining that I was heading the wrong way, but I wanted to keep the destination on the map, so it would recalculate once I actually got closer to a point I could get back on that coast road.
Then the next name came up and again I made the appropriate turn. It seemed I was now running in parallel with the coast road and decided to push it as far as I could, as I kept watching little roads that headed back to my desired path. But I didn’t want to take the wrong one and then have to backtrack. Finally GPS said to turn right and I felt I had hopefully gotten past the construction. When I reached the coast road, I saw another road closed sign, but it was pointing to the south - I had made it through! I ended up arriving in town just a couple minutes late. X is a lovely, but cramped little town. This was the first time I started bumping into one way streets and I soon realized I wasn’t overly familiar with the signage that let you know you were going the wrong way. Luckily Google didn’t send me down the wrong way on any of these streets. It has in the past. One time it sent me down some skinny Italian road that almost narrowed so much I couldn’t get my little economy car through it and there were warnings everywhere that I was going the wrong way. But the main highway was in sight, so I just prayed there weren’t any traffic cameras or police around.
I pulled into the parking lot was, and almost felt like I was in Key West. It suddenly had a very coastal vibe. I walked up to the distillery and stepped into a coffee shop. To the left, I could see that the coffee shop was on a platform overlooking the distillery. The pot stills were gorgeous, set up on a restored brick wall, with Copeland’s beautiful nautical logo illuminated behind it.
I asked for Tim, my contact. Actually to this day, I refer to him as Tim Copeland because that is how he is listed on Instagram and how I have his name written in my notes. He’s not the owner, but instead an ambassador for the company - I guess I need to ask him what his real last name is!
He welcomed me and then said, I wanted to take you outside and talk a little bit about the area, so maybe we should go now, while it isn’t raining! When I walked in it was sunny, so I instantly got a hint of the local mentality - see the sun, do your stuff outdoors because the rain is coming!
It was just a few paces out to the waterfront and there was a beautiful view of the water and Copeland Island. Tim gave me the background on the island, including the fact that during the great potato blight, it was the one place in Ireland that the disease didn’t touch and so the locals were well fed in potatoes during that time. As for the little seaside town - he told me that in the 1850s and 1860s this town was one of the busiest ports in Ireland until up until the 1920s. I imagined Campbeltown, Scotland, which wasn’t very far from where we were standing and the photos I’d seen of that calm harbor transformed into a parking lot of cargo boat after cargo boat. I painted that picture over the serine harbor I was currently looking at. He said, ships of all sizes came from all over the world to this place.
Then he told me that not far from here was the famous battle between the Scot turned American John Paul Jones and his SS Ranger against the HMS Drake. Jones was an instigator and decided to take the battle during the American Revolution directly to the British. He ran up and down the coast terrorizing British citizens in the hopes of turning British sympathies against the war.
As an American, I’d always had always been curious to learn more about Jones, but never took the time. He was just “an American patriot that took it to the British,” as far as I was concerned - and likely that is the attitude of most in the United States. I had anticipated telling the great American hero story to start this episode, but what I found, as I usually do, was a complicated man with a lot of shadows, mystery, and some very less than heroic tendencies.
I said, there must have been a few distilleries around here in the past - but Tim said they couldn’t find any evidence of even one. There were likely illicit stills, but nothing licensed as far as they could find. The current distillery was still fairly new to the location, being built in 2019, but Gareth Irvine, the founder had actually started making pink gin 5 ½ years ago. With their gin established, they decided to source some of Brian Watts’ juice at GND to release their first whiskey Merchant’s Quay, but the goal is to produce 100% their own whiskey in the future, with a target date of 2024.
We walked inside and I met an American distiller named Cal and the other face, Mark, I recognized from my earlier visit to Echlinville, where he was apparently visiting a cask or two that is stored there. We had a great long conversation about distilling and where Irish whiskey is going. When talking through the process, I found out this is the first place on my list that was looking to only double distill - including their single pot still whiskey. Then I got a chance to try some of their new make.
The first Mark handed me was a peated malt, I am a sucker for peat smoke and of all the whiskies I would smell on my trip, this was the one that had the most incredible smoky nose. It was beautiful. And at a high proof, this clear liquid had a really nice taste and remarkably clean finish. I was also intrigued by the fact they were making a chocolate malt whiskey. I had a sample of that and their standard single malt new make. All were brilliant. Clean, flavorful, citrusy, herbal, and not overwhelmed by the yeasty smell you normally get from new make. I actually ended up leaving with a bottle of all three, so I could enjoy them again later.
Then we walked over to a large vat where they were getting ready to proof down their Jones 1778 Navy Strength gin. I asked them about the term “navy strength” and whether that was an industry used term, Tim explained about the gunpowder heritage and proofing down, but said the “navy strength” term was actually something pretty recent when it came to proofing. Mark invited me to take a whif of the vat. I jumped back, whoa! The botanicals pierced my nostrils right up to my brain! Boy did that clear my sinuses, I said. Then I got to taste it, at around 63% abv. Mark said, it might be a little strong. Oh it was fine! What I love about this gin is that they age it in bourbon casks for 120 days and then another 20 in Oloroso sherry casks, so it actually mellows out the overly junipery character that keeps me from usually liking gins and it imparts those familiar characteristics that whiskey fans enjoy.
What a day! As much as I thought nothing could top the experience of jumping between the second largest and the smallest distillery on the island, today I got to see an amazing glimpse of the future of tourism on the island and the incredible skills of the distillers on the island.
The future, is bright.
THE REAL JOHN PAUL JONES
Whenever the name John Paul Jones is mentioned in the United States, his name is usually followed by someone saying, oh yeah, he was the first to defeat the formidable British Navy during the American Revolution. Well, he was the first to defeat them near their own shores, and the British dominated most of the sea engagements, the Drake/Ranger battle was far the first American victory.
The first recorded victory was on August 7, 1775, when the American sloop Commerce, under the command of Captain Clement Lempriere saw an opportunity to capture gunpower stores in St. Augustine, Florida. He caught wind that the British ship HMS Betsy was heading in that direction too and was loaded to the gills with gunpowder. Not a cannonball sailed, as the Commerce quietly parked up next to its victim and crewmen jumped from ship to ship and quickly subdued the slumbering crew. Not a glorious battle by any means, but the Commerce did secure 17k pounds of gunpowder in one action.
A couple of days later, the HMS Falcon, under the command of Captain John Linzee, chased down 2 American schooners, returning from the West Indies. The first schooner was captured, the other sailed toward Gloucester Harbor. Angry citizens saw the British ship boarding the American schooner and opened fire. 35 British sailors were killed, the schooners were secured by the Americans and Captain Linzee was forced to retreat.
There would be at least 14 more American naval victories in the war before John Paul Jones’ famed Irish Sea exploits.
Another myth is that patriotism rang in the hearts of John Paul Jones and his crew. To Jones it was, to his second in command Lieutenant Thomas Simpson and his crew, American prestige came second to profit. Jones was often called a privateer and pirate by the British. If first hand accounts are correct, Jones wasn’t only fighting the British, he was fighting a potential mutiny by his men, who thought he was too bent on glory. In fact, after the Ranger victory, Jones filed a petition to have Simpson court-martialed - but among Jones detractors was John Adams, who felt Jones was trying to keep the adulation of the French to himself.
Jones is also credited by many as being the Father of the United States Navy, and history books will point to his guerrilla tactics, fear campaign, and victories as the reason. In reality, if he earned that moniker, it would have been during the early days of the revolution in 1775 when, as a member of the Federal Naval Committee, his opinions turned into policy. Yet, he couldn’t work and play well with Commodore Hopkins - tired with Jones’ challenging his orders, the exasperated leader sent the passionate Jones to France, likely to get him out of his hair.
As long time listeners of Whiskey Lore know, I’m not a huge fan of the idea that we have to name a “Father” of anything. It always takes more than a single person along to accomplish any major task. But in my opinion, there is another man more deserving. The man who fought for a Federal Navy in the Continental Congress, was an early chairman of the Naval Committee, and then pushed for and achieved the re-establishment of the United States Navy after the Revolutionary War, that man is John Adams.
When Adams was pushing for the formation of the modern U.S. Navy, Jones had already passed away in Paris. After having been sent to Europe after the war, his ship was traded from under him to the French. Desperate for a commission, he went to Catherine the Great of Russia and became a rear admiral. But again, he would tangle with his commander, and then a rape allegation would see him exiled for a period of two years. He would fight for reinstatement, but by this time his reputation in Russia was ruined and he died from a kidney ailment just as the two years were up.
To me, John Paul Jones is another shining example of how shorthand history and hero worship deprives us of the truth. If you are an American you likely swell with pride when hearing the name John Paul Jones, as our history books have said, he’s the guy that stuck it to the British. It’s part of the reason I started this story off from the British perspective. Sometimes we just need to take our patriotic historical blinders off, to understand, our heroes aren’t perfect and that there is always another side to the story.
Not to say Jones wasn’t a hero. To the American people and to the U.S. Navy he should be - but with the caveat, that he was also a human, with human failings. And that he wasn’t acting alone. Without the assistance of those other brave souls that kept the navy afloat before he had his chance in the North Channel, his glory may never have come.
Politicians and historical commentators have the luxury of propping up their characters to achieve their ends. But we, as history lovers seeking the truth, need to keep our radar up.
It was a Spanish Philosopher that said “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” If we allow our past to be glossed over - and we don’t ask deeper questions - then it is we who lost the battle.
I’m Drew Hannush and this is Whiskey Lore.
Whiskey Lore is a production of Travel Fuels Life LLC
Production, stories, and research by Drew Hannush
And make sure to catch up on past episodes of the Whiskey Lore Stories season on Irish Whiskey, because next week, I have a special announcement about a big event coming up on November 15th and how you can take part. And meanwhile, I’ll be heading back into the 18th century taking you through Ireland’s transition from a land of farmer distillers to the very origins of today's Irish Whiskey industry. Plus Alfred Barnard will make it to Galway, and I’ll be visiting a distillery looking to start a new family heritage of distilling.
Thanks for listening! I’m your host Drew Hannush and until next time, cheers and slainte mhath!
For show notes, transcripts, and links to books and social media, head to whiskey-lore.com.
- Alfred Barnard "The Distilleries of Great Britain"